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Name Duke of Lancaster & Aquitaine John of Gaunt Plantagenet69, M
Birth Date 3 Mar 1340
Birth Place Ghent, Flanders
Death Date 3 Feb 1399 Age: 58
Death Place Leicestershire, England
Father King of England Edward lll Plantagenet , M (1312-1377)
Mother Philippa of Hainault , F (1311-1369)
Misc. Notes
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster , was the fourth son of King Edward III of England and is so called because he was born at Ghent in 1340 . He became Duke of Lancaster by his first marriage to his cousin, Blanche. After Blanche's death in 1369 , John married Constance of Castile , daughter of King Peter I of Castile , thus giving him a claim on the kingdom of Castile , which he would pursue unsuccessfully. After the death of his elder brother, Edward, the Black Prince , John of Gaunt became increasingly powerful. He was able to protect the religious reformer, John Wyclif , with whose aims he sympathised. When his father died and was succeeded b y the youthful Richard II of England , Gaunt's position was strengthened still further, but some unwise decisions and actions caused Richard, and some of the common people, to distrust him, which is why his Savoy Palace was destroyed by rioters during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. In 1386 , he was dispatched by Richard to the Continent as an ambassador. In the meantime, he had fathered four children by a mistress, Katherine Swynford (whose sister married the poet, Geoffrey Chaucer ). Years after his wife died, he married Katherine, and their children, the Beauforts, were legitimised but barred from inheriting the throne. From the eldest son, John , came a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort , whose son, later King Henry VII of England , would nevertheless claim the throne. John of Gaunt's legitimate son from his first marriage, Henry Bolingbroke, was less of a diplomat than his father, and was banished from the kingdom by Richard II in 1398 . When John o f Gaunt died in 1399 , his estates were declared forfeit to the crown. This caused Bolingbroke to return, and he deposed the unpopular Richard to reign as King Henry IV of England . Children of John of Gaunt : By Blanche of Lancaster: Philippa Plantagenet (1360-1426), married King John I of Portugal (1357-1433) John Plantagenet (1362-1365) Elizabeth Plantagenet (1364-1426), married (1) John Hastings (1372-1389), Earl of Pembroke; ( 2) John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (~1350-1400); (3) Sir John Cornwall, Baron Fanhope (d. 1 443) Edward Plantagenet (1365-1368) John Plantagenet (1366-136x) Henry IV of England (1367-1413), married (1) Mary Bohun (1369-1394); (2) Joanna of Navarr e (1368-1437) Isabel Plantagenet (1368-136x) By Constanza of Castile: Catalina (Catherine) Plantagenet (1372-1418), married King Henry III of Castile (1379-1406) John Plantagenet (1372-1375) By Katherine Swynford : John Beaufort (1373-1410), Earl of Somerset, married Margaret Holland (1385-1429) Henry Cardinal Beaufort (1375-1447) Thomas Beaufort (1377-1426), Duke of Exeter, married Margaret Neville Joan Beaufort (1379-1440), married (1) Robert Ferrers, Baron Ferrers of Wemme (d. 1396); (2 ) Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland (1364-1425)
Spouses
1 Countess of Derby Blanche Plantagenet69, F
Birth Date 25 Mar 1341
Death Date 12 Sep 1368 Age: 27
Death Place Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England
Father Henry of Lancaster Plantagenet , M (~1310-~1360)
Mother Isabel de Beaumont , F (->1360)
Marr Date 19 May 1359
Marr Place Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England
Children Philippe(Filipa) , F (1360-)
  John , M (1362-<1366)
  Elizabeth , F (1363-1425)
  Edward , M (1365-)
  John , M (1366-)
  Henry IV , M (1367-1413)
  Isabel , F (~1368-)
2 Constance of Castile69, F
Birth Date 1354
Birth Place Castrojeriz
Death Date 1394 Age: 40
Death Place Leicester
Father King Pedro I of Castile-Leon , M (1334-~1367)
Mother Maria Diaz de Padilla , F (-1361)
Misc. Notes
Constance of Castile (1354 – June 1394) was claimant of the Castilian throne after the death of her father Pedro the Cruel. She married, at Roquefort, near Bordeaux, Guienne, on 21 September 1371, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, as his second wife.
This was the way for Gaunt to obtain a kingdom of his own (he had also pursued Scotland), England having already many heirs with higher rights than his. John of Gaunt acted as King Consort, but was unsuccessful in obtaining Castile. Their daughter Catalina was married to the claimant of the Trastamara line, Henry III of Castile, thus uniting these two rival claims.
Marr Date 1371
Marr Place Bordeaux
Children Katherine , F (~1372-1418)
3 Katherine de Roet69, F
Birth Date abt 1350
Birth Place Picardy, Somme, France
Death Date 10 May 1403 Age: 53
Death Place Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England
Misc. Notes
Catherine (or Katharine or Katherine) (~1350 - 1403) was the daughter of Payne (or Paen) de Roet (or Rouet or Roelt) a Flemish herald from Hainault who was knighted just before dying in the wars, leaving Catherine and her older sister Philippa, as well as a brother, Walter, and eldest sister, Isabel/Elizabeth de Ruet,( who died chanoinness of the convent of St. Waudru's, Mons, ca. 1366) . Born in about 1350 , in about 1366 Catherine married Hugh Swynford or Synford, an English knight from the manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire , and bore him at least two children (Blanch, Thomas and likely the Margaret Swynford who was nominated a nun at the prestigious Barking Abbey by the command of Richard II in 1377) before he, too , died in the European wars. She then became attached to the household of John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster , ostensibly as governess to his two daughters (the sisters of the future Henr y IV of England ) by his first wife Blanche, but eventually she became his official mistress . Catherine's sister Philippa married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer , whose poem The Book of th e Duchess commemorated Blanche's death in about 1369 . Long after the death of his second wife Constance (or Constanza) of Castile, John and Catherine married in January 1396 , three years before he died. The four children Catherine had borne John of Gaunt had been given the surname "Beaufort" and were already adults when they were legitimized (but barred from inheriting the throne by a clause inserted by half-brother Henry IV well into the latter's reign) in 1390 : John Earl of Somerset, Henry Cardinal Beaufort , Thomas Beaufort Duke of Exeter , and Joan Countess of Westmoreland . The coat of arms designed for Catherine was three gold Catherine wheels ("roet" means "wheel ") on a red background. Her son John was the great-grandfather of Henry VII of England ; her daughter Joan was the grandmother of Edward IV of England and Richard III of England , whom Henry VII defeated to take the throne (before marrying the daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII). Her step-son became Henry IV of England by deposing Richard II of England (who was imprisoned and died shortly thereafter, in Pontefract Castle , where Catherine's son Thomas Swynford was constable , and he was said to have starved Richard to death for his step-brother); her step-daughter, John and Constance's daughter Catherine (or Catalina), was the great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon , the first wife of Henry VIII of England and mother of Mary I of England . Catherine survived John by only four years, dying on 10 May < . (Since she was then dowager Duchess of Lancaster, there was a record of the exact day, as there was not for her birth , when she was a nobody.) Her tomb, and that of her daughter Joan Beaufort , are under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral , but their remains are no longer in them, because the tombs were despoiled in 1644 , during the English Civil War , by the Roundheads.
Marr Date 13 Jan 1396
Marr Place Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England
Children Joan , F (~1379-1440)
  Henry , M (~1375-1447)
  John , M (1371-~1410)
Last Modified 18 Mar 2008 Created 3 Jun 2012 using Reunion for Macintosh

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