|Thomas Randolph Earl of Moray was born before 1278 at Scotland. Thomas, earl of Moray, was the son of Thomas and Isabel de Kilconquhar, Robert Bruce's half sister. He was the son of Thomas Randolph (of Strathdon) and Isabel Bruce. |
Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray (died 20 July 1332) was an important figure in the Scottish Wars of Independence. He is usually described as a nephew of Robert the Bruce although their exact relationship is uncertain. The traditional view is that his mother was a daughter of the first marriage of Countess Marjorie of Carrick, who was mother of King Robert by her second marriage, but recently this view has been questioned. The term "nephew", like "cousin", could be used rather loosely in those days, although there are no grounds for believing that he was Bruce's illegitimate son.
Randolph supported Bruce in his initial coup when he proclaimed himself king and was crowned at Scone, but abandoned him after the English victory at the Battle of Methven. Later, fighting for the English, he was captured and brought before the king, who he taunted for his alleged cowardice by engaging in guerrilla warfare instead of standing and fighting in pitched battle.
However, he was persuaded to change sides again, and went on to become one of the king's most important lieutenants, eventually being made Earl of Moray. The fact that he was allowed to resume his allegiance to Bruce suggests that they did have family ties.
His most famous achievement took place in 1314, just a few months before the Battle of Bannockburn, when he carried out a daring attack on Edinburgh Castle. This was one of a handful of castles in Scotland still in English hands, and stood on top of an apparently impregnable rock. The son of a former Governor knew about a path up the rock, which he had used to visit the town at night against his father's wishes, and tipped off the Scots. Randolph led his men up this path one night to capture the castle.
He played an important role in the Scottish victory at Bannockburn, where he commanded one of the four schiltrons of the Scottish infantry.
On the death of Robert I the crown was inherited by his son David II, who was only a boy. Randolph became regent, but three years later died of a sudden illness at Musselburgh on his way to repel an invasion by Edward Baliol and his supporters. At the time it was believed that he had poisoned by the English, but this is now discounted.
Thomas Randolph married Isabel Stewart, a kinswoman of Walter Stewart. Three of his children succeeded him to the earldom of Moray: Thomas, John and Agnes.
Thomas Randolph Earl of Moray married Isabel Stewart, daughter of Sir John Stewart (of Bonkyll) and Margaret de Bonkyll.
In 1312 Thomas Randolph, only s. and h. of Thomas RANDOLPH of Strathdon, sometime Chamberlain of Scotland, by (-), sister of ROBERT I , and da. of Robert (BRUCE or BRUS), afterwards EARL OF CARRICK, was present, as Thomas Randal le fyz, with his father at Baliol's homage to Edward 1 at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 26 Dec. 1292. He rebelled with Bruce, perhaps even attending him on his secret journey to Scotland in 1306 and was taken prisoner by the English at Methven, 19 June. As Lord of Nithsdale he participated in the letter of the Scottish magnates to Philip IV of France, Mar. 1308/9. He was cr. Earl of Moray between 12 Apr. and 29 Oct. 1312. The extensive grants he received are evidence of the esteem in which he was held by, and of the services he rendered to, Robert Bruce. In Mar. 1313/4 he made a sensational capture of Edinburgh Castle from the English, and he was in command of the left wing at the battle of Bannockburn, 24 June 1314. He attended the Parl. at Ayr, 26 Apr. 1315, at which, under the Act of Succession, he was named Guardian if the King or his brother should die during the minority of the heir to the throne. In Edward Bruce's invasion of Ireland, 1315-17, he took a notable part both in the actual fighting and in the raising of men; and in 1318 participated in the capture of Berwick by surprise. The following year Moray and Douglas raided the north of Yorkshire, and defeated a force raised by the Archbishop, in what was jocularly called the Chapter of Mitton. Moray's name stands second in the list of Scottish magnates who addressed the Pope in defence of Scottish independence, 6 Apr. 1320. At the time of the ineffectual negotiations between the Scots and the disaffected Earl of Lancaster, 1321-22, Moray was acting as Lieutenant of the King of Scotland, and was at Corbridge, in Northumberland, in Jan. 1321/2 ; later in the year he carried havoc into Durham and Yorks, and in the autumn fought with the King in the attack on the English near Byland, when Edward II was forced to flee, and was nearly captured in York. In May 1323 Moray was in England with an embassy which concluded a truce at York on 30 May for 13 years. Later in the year at Avignon he obtained from the Pope his long withheld concession to address Bruce as King of Scotland. In Apr. 1325 he was appointed chief of an embassy to France, which, at Corbeil, in Apr. 1326, concluded an alliance against England. In 1327 the short-lived truce was broken; Moray and Douglas harried Northumberland and balked the English forces under the young King Edward III. They were appointed jointly to make the arrangements for the marriage of the infant Prince David of Scotland with Joan, sister of Edward III, which was celebrated 12 July 13 28 at Berwick. On the death of Bruce, 7 June 1329, under whom the Earl had been Justiciar of Scotland north of the Forth, Moray became Regent of Scotland, and so continued till his death, 20 July 1332, at Musselburgh, on his way to meet the invasion of the disinherited lords under Edward Ballot. He m. Isabel, da. of John STEWART of Bonkyll, by Margaret, da. and h. of Sir Alexander de Bonkyll. She was living 16 July 135I.
Of Elgin Castle. Robert (sic) Randolph, nephew and supporter of Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn and afterwards regent for David II..
That Randolph was regarded in Scotland, within 50 odd years of his death, as the first Earl of Moray is shown by the terms used by the Bishop of Moray, circa 1383, with regard to vacancies of the see tam temporibus comitum Moravie quam antequam creatus esset dominus Thomas Ranulfi comes Moravie. Thomas was Regent of Scotland in 1329.
Thomas died on 20 July 1332 at Musselburgh, East Lothian, Scotland. He was buried at Dumfermline, Fife.
Children of Thomas Randolph Earl of Moray
Thomas Randolph (2nd Earl of Moray) d. 12 Aug 1332
John Randolph 3rd Earl of Moray d. 17 Oct 1346
Children of Thomas Randolph Earl of Moray and Isabel Stewart
Isabella Randolph+ b. s 1310
Agnes Randolph b. c 1312, d. 1369
|Last Modified 16 Mar 2009||Created 3 Jun 2012 using Reunion for Macintosh|